IC design or Integrated Circuit design is a sub-category of electronic engineering, encircling the specific logic and circuit design techniques needed to design integrated circuits, or ICs. ICs comprise small-scale electronic components such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, etc. fabricated into an electrical grid on a monolithic semiconductor.
Digital and analog IC designs are the two wide categories of IC design. Components like microprocessors, FPGAs, different memories (such as: RAM, ROM, and flash) and digital ASICs are produced by digital IC design. Digital design’s main focusing points are logical rightness, ensuring maximum circuit density, and placing circuits to ensure efficient routing of clock and timing signals. Power IC design and RF IC design are the fields in which Analog IC design has specialism. Analog IC design is used in the design of phase locked loops, op-amps, oscillators, linear regulators and active filters. Analog design bothers about the physics of the semiconductor devices like resistance, gain, power dissipation and matching. Integrity of analog signal amplification and filtering is generally critical and for this reason, analog integrated circuits use comparatively bigger area active devices than digital IC designs and commonly not so much dense in circuitry.
Dependability on semiconductor devices by the electronic systems is increasing day-by-day because the integration level is growing quicker than ever and it is necessary to pack more circuitry in the smallest packages. Various circuit components, which are required to complete computer systems such as, capacitors, transistors, resistors, etc, can be installed on an individual silicon die.
When a package holds individual silicon (silicon germanium for RF circuits, or gallium arsenide for microwave frequency circuits) that builds up either portion of a bigger electronic circuit or system or an entire electronic system in its own right is called an Integrated Circuit (IC). When a full electronic system is created by the IC, it is generally mentioned as a SoC (System on a Chip). Present-day communication ICs are of SoC designs.
MCM (Multichip Module) comprises more than one dies and it is an extension to the IC; we can say for example, circuits and sensors are to be accommodated in an individual package but which is not possible to be set up on an individual die. The MCM was mentioned as a hybrid circuit at the beginning, which consists of multiple ICs and inactive components on a common circuit base that are unified by conductors set up within that base. Complications related to size reduction and signal degradation can be alleviated by implementing MCM.
An extension to the IC is the multichip module (MCM), which contains multiple dies; for example, when sensors and circuits are to be housed in a single package but which cannot be fabricated on a single die. Originally referred to as a hybrid circuit, the MCM consists of two or more ICs and passive components on a common circuit base that are interconnected by conductors fabricated within that base. The MCM helps with size reduction problem and helps alleviate signal degradation.
Devices are piled vertically on system in a package (SiP), which is an extension to the MCM. Wire bonding to the substrate is usual. An extension to the SiP is the package on a package (PoP).